Thursday, 20 December 2012
Xenophobia Upside: Ethnic And Religious Diversity Correlated To Less Environmental Action

When is diversity a bad thing? When it comes to environmental action, according to a new paper from the University of East Anglia (UEA).

Scandinavian countries, low in ethnic and religious diversity, take more collective action than more diverse nations, like the UK, China and the United States. But the UEA paper frames diversity using the more negative term 'fragmentation'.

Americans may love separation of church and state and the mix of multiple religions in the USA but Dr. Elissaios Papyrakis, a senior lecturer in UEA's School of International Development and a senior researcher at Vrije Universiteit
in Holland, found that religious diversity has an even greater detrimental impact on environmental performance than ethnic diversity.

Papyrakis gathered data on ethnicity, religion, industry, income and population density, and then more subjective measures like conflict and control of corruption, for 127 developed and developing countries and then matched them to environmental performance. He then created a metric for what influences a country's environmental performance and investment in protection measures and whether this is associated with social diversity.

The data analyzed was for the period between 1960 and 2006, the most recent available to him. Environmental performance was measured by attributing monetary damage - as a share of GDP - attributed to a country's carbon dioxide emissions and the dependence of energy consumption on 'clean', or renewable, sources such as hydropower, geothermal, nuclear and solar power. Papyrakis also took into account the country's adjusted net savings, a measure of sustainable development that looks at the true rate of saving in an economy after taking into account investments in human capital, depletion of natural resources and damages caused by pollution.

Although numerous factors influence environmental performance simultaneously, ethnic and religious diversity alone can explain a substantial part of the differences observed in environmental performance across countries. For example, an ethnically fragmented country such as Tanzania invests 11 per cent less for the future (adjusted net savings) compared to other Sub-Saharan African countries, such as Madagascar, that are not diverse.

Papyrakis believes that "social fragmentation has a negative effect on environmental performance. Countries that are either ethnically or religiously diverse tend to under-invest in environmental protection, even when one controls for differences in income and industrial activity, for example.

"This might be because of differences in preferences across the various, and often geographically concentrated, ethnic or religious groups about which environmental measures should be introduced and when and where. For example, public spending for waste treatment facilities or reforestation can become particularly contentious issues when different ethnic or religious groups do no benefit equally. Even when preferences over what should be done do not differ much, differences in language and culture may hamper communication and collective action. If these differences cannot be bridged, investment will not be made and positive action will not be taken."

Some of the worst environmental performers, given their level of economic development and ethnic and religious diversity, are China, Democratic Republic of Congo, Angola and the United Arab Emirates. The more ethnically diverse United States and UK also scored lower in terms of adjusted net savings (US 2.92 per cent of GDP, UK 13.88 per cent (2005 figures) and higher in terms of damage attributed to CO2 emissions (US 0.344 per cent of GDP, UK 0.178 per cent (2005 figures) compared to less diverse Scandinavian economies such as Denmark (adjusted net savings 13.88 per cent, CO2 damage 0.13 per cent (2005 figures).
Source: Science 2.0


alas said...

Well at least eastern Europe is remaining white. Or at least I thought so until I read even Poland has been infected by multiculturalism.

isntlam said...

The downside of diversity

A Harvard political scientist finds that diversity hurts civic life. What happens when a liberal scholar unearths an inconvenient truth?

Anonymous said...

The Swiss intend to have a referendum that limits immigration, as immigration of diverse cultures harms the environment.


Anonymous said...

It's Official: Muslim Population of Britain Doubles
by Douglas Murray

The strange thing about this "multicultural" society is that it can celebrate every imaginable culture except the one that allows all these cultures to co-exist alongside each other -- and all the time with enthusiasm from pundits and politicians, busy trying to pretend that this is all the most wonderful result imaginable.

.........................they still hate Israelis more

Anonymous said...

While a number of far-right parties in Europe run on xenophobic platforms, Jobbik is the only parliamentary party of a European Union member state that campaigns with openly anti-Semitic materials. Its elected officials have made anti-Semitic remarks in Parliament, including a blood libel just this month. The party’s presidential candidate, Krisztina Morvai, has referred to Israeli Jews as “lice-infested, dirty murderers.”......

Ukrainian politician Igor Miroschnichenko has reportedly taken aim at one of his country's most famous, glamorous emigrants: Mila Kunis.
In a recent Facebook post, the lawmaker argued that the Jewish, Ukrainian-born Ted actress, 29, is not a true Ukrainian, calling her a "zhydovka," which translates to "dirty Jewess," a term used since the time of the

Ukrainian Jews subsequently protested the offensive slur -- but the government then excused Miroschnichenko's wording, claiming the term isn't necessarily derogatory.


Anonymous said...

The UN Closes Out 2012: Nine Resolutions Against Israel, Silence About Syrian Attacks on Palestinians

by Elliott Abrams
December 20, 2012

The UN General Assembly is closing out 2012 in a blaze of glory. The UNGA adopted nine resolutions against Israel in one day, December 18. They are usefully summarized by Tom Gross in his web site, and I copy his list of them at the bottom of this blog post. More information about this important UN work for world peace can be found at the UN’s own web site.

Anonymous said...


Syrian government warplanes have been bombing the Palestinian Yarmouk refugee camp in Syria recent days, killing (in the words of a leading Palestinian) “far more Palestinians than Israel killed during the recent conflict in Gaza”. Syrian warplanes also fired into a mosque used by Palestinians in Syria. Thousands of Palestinians have been forced to flee for their lives this week from Syrian forces.

But the UN had nothing to say about this.

Instead on Tuesday alone, the UN passed nine resolutions slamming Israel and none criticizing Syria.

While the UN was silent, Hamas – which until recently had its headquarters in Damascus – denounced president Assad as a “war criminal”.

By the end of this week, the current 2012 UN General Assembly session will have adopted 22 country-specific resolutions on Israel – and only four on the rest of the world.


Here are the nine anti-Israel resolutions passed on Tuesday:

A/C.4/67/L.18 – The occupied Syrian Golan

“The Israeli decision to impose its laws, jurisdiction and administration on the occupied Syrian Golan was null and void and without international legal effect and demanded that Israel, the occupying Power, rescind forthwith its decision…”

A/C.4/67/L.17 – Israeli practices affecting the human rights of the Palestinian people in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including East Jerusalem

“Expressing grave concern about the continuing systematic violation of the human rights of the Palestinian people by Israel, the occupying Power…

A/C.4/67/L.16 – Israeli settlements in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including East Jerusalem, and the occupied Syrian Golan

“Reaffirms that the Israeli settlements in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including East Jerusalem, and in the occupied Syrian Golan are illegal and an obstacle to peace and economic and social development…”

A/C.4/67/L.15 – Applicability of the Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, of 12 August 1949, to the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including East Jerusalem, and the other occupied Arab territories

“Demands that Israel accept the de jure applicability of the Convention in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including East Jerusalem, and other Arab territories occupied by Israel since 1967, and that it comply scrupulously with the provisions of the Convention…”

A/C.4/67/L.10 – Assistance to Palestine refugees

“Expressing grave concern at the especially difficult situation of the Palestine refugees under occupation, including with regard to their safety, well-being and socioeconomic living conditions…”

A/C.4/67/L.11 – Persons displaced as a result of the June 1967 and subsequent hostilities

“Reaffirms the right of all persons displaced as a result of the June 1967 and subsequent hostilities to return to their homes or former places of residence in the territories occupied by Israel since 1967…”

A/C.4/67/L.12 – Operations of the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East

“Gravely concerned about the extremely difficult socioeconomic conditions being faced by the Palestine refugees in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including East Jerusalem, particularly in the refugee camps in the Gaza Strip, as a result of the continuing prolonged Israeli closures…”

A/C.4/67/L.13 - Palestine refugees’ properties and their revenues

“Reaffirms that the Palestine refugees are entitled to their property and to the income derived there from, in conformity with the principles of equity and justice…”

A/C.4/67/L.14 – Work of the Special Committee to Investigate Israeli Practices Affecting the Human Rights of the Palestinian People and Other Arabs of the Occupied Territories

“Deplores those policies and practices of Israel that violate the human rights of the Palestinian people and other Arabs of the occupied territories…”

Anonymous said...

U.N. – Again – Bashes Israel While Ignoring the Rest of the World

"Two days ago, the U.N. General Assembly (UNGA) – the body made up of representatives of all member nations – passed nine anti-Israel resolutions.

By week’s end, the total number of anti-Israel resolutions passed during this year’s session of the UNGA will be 22.

The total number of resolutions dealing with the rest of the world? Four.

That’s not a type-o. Four total resolutions passed about the rest of the world...."

Anonymous said...

It is simply ignored by the other Liberals, as it always has been.

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